US Department of Transportation’s (DoT) Five Levels of Vehicle Automation

Proof Point

U.S. Department of Transportation's five levels of vehicle automation framework helps in developing regulatory policies, monitoring development progress, and sharing of best practices

U.S. Department of Transportation's (DoT) Five Levels of Vehicle Automation

Proof Point Findings

  • Vehicle Automation Levels – U.S. DOT adopted SAE International’s on-road motor vehicle automation framework to accelerate development of regulatory policies, monitor autonomous vehicle development, and share best industry best practices with car manufacturers
  • Level 0: Non Automation – Driver has complete and sole control of primary driving functions at all times, such as brake, steering, and throttle
  • Level 1: Function-Specific Automation – Driver retains full control of vehicle, but assisted by automation in performing specific functions to respond to certain driving conditions safer and faster, such as emergency brake assist and electronic stability control
  • Level 2: Combined Function Automation – Driver relegates control of at least two driving functions that are designed by automation to work in unison, such as adaptive cruise control integrated with lane centering
  • Level 3: Limited Self-Driving Automation – Driver has option to transfer full driving control to vehicle under certain road and traffic conditions, and can easily reclaim control when necessary
  • Level 4: Full-Self Driving Automation – Vehicle gains full control of safety-critical driving functions at all times, with human intervention only required in providing destination or navigation input


Market Disruption


Transportation and Logistics


Date Last Updated

April 3, 2017

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